Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein’s Prediction
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[Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein’s Prediction]
[David Reitze (Professor Of Physics At The University Of Florida):] Source: LYBIO.net
Ladies and gentlemen, we have detected gravitational waves. We did it. [Applause]
I am so pleased to be able to tell you that. So these gravitational waves were produced by two colliding black holes came together, merged to form a single black hole about 1.3 billion years ago. They were detected by LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. LIGO is the most precise measuring device ever built.
Let me start with what we saw. So on September 14th, 2015, the two LIGO observatories Hanford Washington, Livingston, Louisiana recorded a signal nearly at the same time, nearly simultaneously. And the signal had a very specific characteristic, characteristic of as time went forward the frequency went up. And what was amazing about this signal is that it’s exactly what you would expect what Einstein’s theory of general relativity would predict for two big massive objects like black holes in spiralling and merging together.
Now it took as months of careful checking, rechecking, analysis, looking at every piece of data to make sure that what we saw was not something that wasn’t a gravitational wave but in fact it was a gravitational wave. And we’ve convinced ourselves that’s the case and we are here to announce that today. But I do want to say something else. This is not just about the detection of gravitational waves, that’s the story today. But what’s really exciting is what comes next. 400 years ago, Galileo turned a telescope to the sky and opened the era of modern observational astronomy.
I think we’re doing something equally important here today.
I think we’re opening a window on the universe, a window of gravitational wave astronomy.
So I’m going to show you two videos that are going to sort of tell you what we discovered.
So the first video is the two black holes. So what you’re looking at on the screen here are two black holes each of them are about 30 solar miles, have about 30 times the mass of the sun. All right, and you’re looking the black holes are the black things in the middle and you’re looking at the stars behind them. By the way, this is not a Hollywood production that I’m going to show you. It is actually a real computer simulation solving Einstein’s equations for – for these merging black holes. So this is really what it would look like if you were in a spaceship close up.
And I will also point out that the movie I’m showing is vastly slowed down relative to what happened here.
So let me start it.
All right, you can see that as the black holes spin around each other, all right. The stars behind them are warped and that’s because the strong gravitational field bend the light that comes around.
[David Reitze:] Source: LYBIO.net
But what, I want you to pay attention to in this video is the fact that as they orbit, the black holes are getting closer and closer to one another. The orbit is speeding up. And eventually, they’re going to merge. The event horizons are going to join – boom.
They produce one big black hole, which relaxes you see a little bit of vibration there. It becomes two smaller black holes die. One bigger black hole is born.
Now, what’s really amazing about this is, this is the first time that this kind of a system has ever been seen, a binary black hole merger and it’s proof that binary black holes existed in the universe.
So I want to put this in perspective for you, because I think it’s very important. All right, to give a sense of what really happened here.
So each of these black holes are about 150 kilometers in diameter, a little bit bigger than that.
Takes something that’s 150 kilometers in diameter, so that’s about little bit bigger may be a lot bigger than the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area, pack 30 times the mass of the sun in that accelerate it to about half the speed of light. Now take another thing. 30 times the mass of the sun, accelerate it half the speed of light and collide them together. That’s what we saw here. It’s mind boggling.
Right now, let me talk about the gravitational waves. You didn’t see any gravitational waves there. What you saw was actually black holes. Now, let me look at this from the gravitational wave perspective. So you’re going to see again as computer simulation. This is a real simulation using Einstein’s questions. You see the two black holes and the green that you see are the gravitational waves that are produced as the black holes orbit around one another or orbit decays and they merge together.
All right. So they’re spinning around you see they’re getting closer and closer together. As they get closer and closer together more gravitational waves – they merge and there’s this burst of gravitational waves that travels for 1.3 billion years. It passes through everything. It goes right through matter, right through [SARs] and it eventually gets to the earth.
All right, when it gets to the earth, the gravitational wave passes and what it’s going to do is stretch and compress space as these waves pass and you’ll see that the earth is jiggling like jello. I want to – I don’t want people to be scared here; the earth, doesn’t really do this.
[David Reitze:] Source: LYBIO.net
This effect is greatly, greatly exaggerated. But it gives you the effect. And then we zoom in and how we detect these are using the Interferometer that’s in LIGO. And Ray Weiss is going to tell you more about the Interferometer.
I just want to say one thing that, that the effect we’re trying to measure from these violent, these big black holes, colliding with each other at half the speed of light. All right, it is so tiny, that it take something like LIGO to measure it. We are trying to measure things basically at 1/1000 the diameter of proton. That’s the size of the signal that you see on earth from those events that take place 1.3 billion years away, all right.
Let me put that in perspective because I think those kinds of numbers are hard to get your head around, all right.
If we were trying to measure the distance between the sun and the nearest star, which is about 3 1/4 light years away, LIGO would – is capable of measuring that if you could do that, to a level of about the width of a human hair. So the width of a human hair over 3 1/4 light years that, that’s remarkable precision, right.
Now what LIGO does?
Is it actually takes these vibrations in space time, these ripples in space time and it records them on a photo detector and you can actually hear them.
So what LIGO has done?
It’s the first time the universe has spoken to us through gravitational waves. And this is remarkable, up till now we’ve been deaf to gravitational waves, but today we are able to hear them. That’s just amazing to me. I think this is big.
Again because what’s going to come now is we’re going to be able to hear more of these things.
And no doubt, we’ll hear things that we expected to hear like binary black holes or perhaps binary neutron stars colliding.
But we will also hear things that we never expected. And as we open a new window on astronomy, we may see things that we never – we never saw before.
So let me conclude by thanking the National Science Foundation for 40 years since the NSF started funding Caltech and MIT to do pilot experiments for LIGO. And then in 1992, the NSF went ahead and funded the LIGO project, right. And they took a big risk, all right. This was bold. The science was solid, but we didn’t know how many events we would see, the technology was nowhere near developed. This was truly I think a scientific moon shot. I really believe that and we did it, we landed on the moon.
[David Reitze:] Source: L Y B I O . N E T
So, so, I really want to thank Dr. Cordova at NSF and also U.S. Congress, the taxpayers who supported this research, because it’s really, really gotten to the point now where it’s going to take off.
Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein’s Prediction. We have detected gravitational waves. We did it. Complete Full Transcript, Dialogue, Remarks, Saying, Quotes, Words And Text.